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Busshō

正法眼藏第三
Treasury of the Eye of the True Dharma
Book 3

佛性
Buddha Nature


釋迦牟尼佛言、一切衆生、悉有佛性。如來常住、無有變易。

The Buddha Śākyamuni said, “All living beings in their entirety have the buddha nature. The tathāgata always abides, without any change.”1

これ、われらが大師釋尊の師子吼の轉法輪なりといへども、一切諸佛、一切祖師の、頂[寧+頁]眼睛なり。參學しきたること、すでに二千一百九十年<當日本仁治二年辛丑歳>、正嫡わづかに五十代<至先師天童淨和尚>、西天二十八代、代代住持しきたり、東地二十三世、世世住持しきたる。十方の佛祖、ともに住持せり。

     Though it is said that this is turning the dharma wheel of “the lion’s roar” of the Great Master, Śākyamuni, the Honored One, it is the pate and the eyes of all the buddhas, all the ancestral masters.2 Its study has come down for two thousand, one hundred ninety years (to this, the second year of the Japanese [era] Ninji, eighth heavenly stem, second terrestrial branch), through merely fifty generations of correct descent (to my former master, the Reverend Jing of Tiantong): through twenty-eight generations in the Western Heavens, it has been maintained in generation after generation; through twenty-three ages in the Eastern Earth, it has been maintained in age after age. The buddhas and ancestors of the ten directions have all maintained it.3

世尊道の一切衆生悉有佛性は、その宗旨いかむ。是什麼物恁麼來の道、轉法輪なり。あるひは衆生といひ、有情といひ、群生といひ、群類といふ。悉有の言は、衆生なり、群有なり。すなはち悉有は佛性なり、悉有の一悉を衆生といふ。正當恁麼時は、衆生の内外すなはち佛性の悉有なり。單傳する皮肉骨髄のみにあらず、汝得吾皮肉骨髄なるがゆゑに。しるべし、いま佛性に悉有せらるる有は、有無の有にあらず。悉有は佛語なり、佛舌なり、佛祖眼睛なり、衲僧鼻孔なり。悉有の言、さらに始有にあらず、本有にあらず、妙有等にあらず。いはんや縁有妄有ならんや。心境性相等にかかはれず。しかあればすなはち、衆生悉有の依正、しかしながら業増上力にあらず、妄縁起にあらず、法爾にあらず、神通修證にあらず。衆生の悉有、それ業増上および縁起法爾等ならんには、諸聖の證道および諸佛の菩提、佛祖の眼睛も、業増上力および縁起法爾なるべし。しかあらざるなり。 盡界はすべて客塵なし、直下さらに第二人あらず、直截根源人未識、忙忙業識幾時休なるがゆゑに。 妄縁起の有にあらず、徧界不曾藏のゆゑに。徧界不曾藏といふは、かならずしも滿界是有といふにあらざるなり。徧界我有は、外道の邪見なり。本有の有にあらず、亙古亙今のゆゑに。始起の有にあらず、不受一塵のゆゑに。條條の有にあらず、合取のゆゑに。無始有の有にあらず、是什麼物恁麼來のゆゑに。始起有の有にあらず、吾常心是道のゆゑに。まさにしるべし、悉有中に衆生快便難逢なり。悉有を會取することかくのごとくなれば、悉有それ透體脱落なり。

     What is the essential point of the World Honored One’s saying, “All living beings in their entirety have the buddha nature”? It is turning the dharma wheel of the saying, “what is it that comes like this?” One speaks of “living beings,” or “sentient beings,” or “the multitude of beings,” or “the multitude of types.” The term “entirety of being” refers to “living beings,” “the multitude of beings.” That is, the “entirety of being” is the buddha nature; “one entirety” of the “entirety of being” is called “living beings.” At this very moment, the interior and exterior of living beings is the “entirety of being” of the buddha nature. This is not only the “skin, flesh, bones, and marrow” singly transmitted; for “you have got my skin, flesh, bones, and marrow.”4

     We should realize that the being that is here made the “entirety of being” by the buddha nature is not the being of being and non-being. The “entirety of being” is the word of the buddha, the tongue of the buddha, the eyes of the buddhas and ancestors, the nose of the patch-robed monk. Furthermore, the term “entirety of being” is not initial being, not original being, not marvelous being; how much less is it conditioned being or deluded being. It has nothing to do with the likes of mind and object, nature and attribute. Therefore, the circumstantial and primary [recompense] of the “entirety of being” of living beings is not by any means the generative power of karma, not deluded conditioned origination, not of its own accord, not the practice and verification of spiritual powers. Were the “entirety of being” of living beings generated by karma, or conditioned origination, or of its own accord, the verification of the way of the nobles as well as the bodhi of the buddhas and the eyes of the buddhas and ancestors would also be the generative power of karma, conditioned origination, and of its own accord. And this is not the case.5

     In all the realms, there is no “adventitious dust” at all; right here, there is no second person beyond this. For “the root source is directly cut,” but people have not noticed; “the busy, busy karmic consciousness,” when will it rest? It is not the being of deluded conditioned origination; for “throughout the realms, it has never been hidden.” To say that “throughout the realms, it has never been hidden” is not necessarily to say that what fills the realms is being: [the notion] that throughout the realms is my being is a false view of the alien paths. It is not the being of original being; for it is “throughout the past and throughout the present.” It is not the being of initial arising; for “it does not admit a single mote of dust.” It is not the being of individual instances; for it is comprehensive. It is not the being of beginningless being; for “what is it that comes like this?” It is not the being of initially arising being; for “my usual mind is the way.” We should realize that, within the “entirety of being,” living beings are “hard conveniently to meet.” When the understanding of the “entirety of being” is like this, the “entirety of being” passes through the body and sloughs it off.6

佛性の言をききて、學者おほく先尼外道の我のごとく邪計せり。それ人にあはず、自己にあはず、師をみざるゆゑなり。いたづらに風火の動著する心意識を、佛性の覺知覺了とおもへり。たれかいふし、佛性に覺知覺了ありと。覺者知者は、たとひ諸佛なりとも、佛性は覺知覺了にあらざるなり。いはんや諸佛を覺者知者といふ覺知は、なんだちが云云の邪解を覺知とせず、風火の動静を覺知とするにあらず。ただ一兩の佛面祖面、これ覺知なり。

     Many scholars, hearing the term “buddha nature,” have falsely reckoned that it is like the “I” in the alien path of Śreṇika. This is because they have not met a person, they have not met themselves, they have not seen a teacher. They have foolishly thought that the mind, mentation, and consciousness moved by wind and fire is the knowing and comprehending of the buddha nature. Who said that the buddha nature has knowing and comprehending? While perceivers and knowers may be buddhas, the buddha nature is not knowing and comprehending. Much less does the perceiving and knowing with which one refers to the buddhas as perceivers and knowers represent the perceiving and knowing in the false understandings you talk on about, the preceiving and knowing of the motion and rest of wind and fire. Just one or two faces of the buddhas and faces of the ancestors — this is perceiving and knowing.7

往往に古老先徳、あるひは西天に往還し、あるひは人天を化導する、漢唐より宋朝にいたるまで、稲麻竹葦のごとくなる、おほく風火の動著を佛性の知覺とおもへる、あはれむべし、學道轉疎なるによりて、いまの失誤あり。いま佛道の晩學初心、しかあるべからず。たとひ覺知を學習すとも、覺知は動著にあらざるなり。たとひ動著を學習すとも、動著は恁麼にあらざるなり。もし眞箇の動著を會取することあらば、眞箇の覺知覺了を會取すべきなり。佛之與性、達彼達此なり。佛性かならず悉有なり、悉有は佛性なるがゆゑに。悉有は百雜碎にあらず、悉有は一條鐵にあらず。拈拳頭なるがゆゑに大小にあらず。すでに佛性といふ、諸聖と齊肩なるべからず、佛性と齊肩すべからず。

     There have frequently been ancient elders and prior worthies who have gone to the Western Heavens and back or have converted and guided humans and gods; from the Han and Tang through the court of the Song, they are like “rice, flax, bamboo, and reeds.” It is pitiful that many of them have thought that the movements of wind and fire are the knowing and perceiving of the buddha nature. It is because they are estranged from the study of the way that they make this mistake. Beginners and latecomers should not be like this. We may study perceiving and knowing, but perceiving and knowing are not movements; we may study movements, but movements are not like this. If one has an understanding of true movement, one will understand true perceiving and comprehending; with “buddha” and “nature,” to master that one is to master this one. The buddha nature is always the “entirety of being”; for the “entirety of being” is the buddha nature. The “entirety of being” is not “a hundred pieces”; the “entirety of being” is not “one strip of iron.” Since it is “raising a fist,” it is not large or small. Given that we are calling it “buddha nature,” it should not be of equal stature with the nobles; it should not be made of equal stature with the buddha nature.8

ある一類おもはく、佛性は草木の種子のごとし。法雨のうるほひしきりにうるほすとき、芽茎生長し、枝葉華果、もすことあり、果實さらに種子をはらめり。かくのごとく見解する、凡夫の情量なり。たとひかくのごとく見解すとも、種子および華果、ともに條條の赤心なりと參究すべし。果裏に種子あり、種子みえざれども根茎等を生ず。あつめざれどもそこばくの枝條大圍となれる、内外の論にあらず、古今の時に不空なり。しかあれば、たとひ凡夫の見解に一任すとも、根茎枝葉、みな同生し同死し、同悉有なる佛性なるべし。

     There is one group that thinks that the buddha nature is like the seed of grasses and trees. When the rain of the dharma continually waters it, it sprouts and grows, the branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits flourish, and the fruits contain further seeds. To hold this kind of opinion is the sentiment of commoners. Even if one holds this kind of view, one should study that both the seeds and the flowers and fruits are “the bare mind in each instance.” Within the fruit is the seed; though the seed cannot be seen, it generates the roots and trunks and the rest. Though not assembled, that they become the many twigs, branches, and great span is not a issue of inside or outside, and is not empty in past or present. Therefore, even if one accepts the opinion of commoners, the root, trunk, branches, and leaves are all born together, die together, and are the buddha nature that is the “entirety of being” together.9

* * * * *

佛言、欲知佛性義、當觀時節因縁。時節若至、佛性現前。

The Buddha said, “If you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature, you should observe the conditions of the time. If the time arrives, the buddha nature appears.”10

いま佛性義をしらんとおもはばといふは、ただ知のみにあらず、行ぜんとおもはば、證せんとおもはば、とかんとおもはばとも、わすれんとおもはばともいふなり。かの説行證忘錯不錯等も、しかしながら時節の因縁なり。時節の因縁を觀ずるには、時節の因縁をもて觀ずるなり。拂子拄杖等をもて相觀するなり。さらに有漏智無漏智本覺始覺無覺正覺等の智をもちゐるには、觀ぜられざるなり。

     This “if you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature” is not just about knowing: it means also “if you wish to practice it,” “if you wish to verify it,” “if you wish to preach it,” and “if you wish to forget it.” That preaching, practicing, verifying, forgetting, mistaking, and not mistaking are, all of them, “the conditions of the time.” In “observing the conditions of the time,” one observes using the conditions of the time; one mutually observes using the whisk, the staff, and so on. They cannot be observed using in addition the wisdoms of “contaminated wisdom,” “uncontaminated wisdom,” “original awakening,” “initial awakening,” “non-awakening,” “right awakening,” and the like.11

當觀といふは、能觀所觀にかかはれず、正觀邪觀等に準すべきにあらず、これ當觀なり。當觀なるがゆゑに不自觀なり、不他觀なり。時節因縁聻なり、超越因縁なり。佛性聻なり、脱體佛性なり。佛佛聻なり、性性聻なり。

     [The meaning of] “should observe” has nothing to do with the observer or what is observed; it should not be guaged by such [notions] as right observation or false observation: it is “should observe.” Because it is “should observe,” it is not one’s own observing, it is not another’s observing. It is the very “conditions of the time” themselves; it transcends conditions. It is the very buddha nature itself; it is the buddha nature with body cast off. It is each buddha himself; it is each nature itself.12

{10}

時節若至の道を、古今のやから往往におもはく、佛性の現前する時節の向後にあらんずるをまつなりとおもへり。かくのごとく修行しゆくところに、自然に佛性現前の時節にあふ。時節いたらざれば、參師問法するにも、辨道功夫するにも、現前せずといふ。恁麼見取して、いたづらに紅塵にかへり、むなしく雲漢をまぼる。かくのごとくのたぐひ、おそらくは天然外道の流類なり。いはゆる欲知佛性義は、たとへば當知佛性義といふなり。當觀時節因縁といふは、當知時節因縁といふなり。いはゆる佛性をしらんとおもはば、しるべし、時節因縁これなり。時節若至といふは、すでに時節いたれり、なにの疑著すべきところかあらんとなり。疑著時節さもあらばあれ、還我佛性來なり。しるべし、時節若至は、十二時中不空過なり。若至は既至といはんがごとし。時節若至すれば、佛性不至なり。しかあればすなはち、時節すでにいたれば、これ佛性の現前なり。あるひは其理自彰なり。おほよそ時節の若至せざる時節いまだあらず、佛性の現前せざる佛性あらざるなり。

     A bunch in the past and present have frequently thought the words “if the time arrives” mean that one awaits a time later when the buddha nature might appear. “Continuing to practice in this way,” they say, “one encounters the time when the buddha nature appears naturally; if the time does not arrive, even though one visits a teacher and asks about the dharma, even though one makes concentrated effort to pursue the way, it will not appear.” Taking such a view, they return in vain to “the red dust,” they stare vacantly at the milky way. Types like this are doubtless followers of the alien path of “the naturalists.”13

     What is called “if you wish to know the meaning of the buddha nature” is saying, for example, “you should know the meaning of the buddha nature.” To say “you should observe the conditions of the time” is to say “you should know the conditions of the time.” If you wish to know what is called “the buddha nature,” you should know it is precisely “the conditions of the time.” To say, “if the time arrives,” means “the time has already arrived; what is there to doubt?” Let doubting the time be as it may, “return the buddha nature to me.” We should realize that “if the time arrives” is “not passing the twelve times in vain.” “If it arrives” is like saying “it has arrived.” If it were “if the time arrives,” the buddha nature would not arrive; therefore, since the time has already arrived, this is the appearance of the buddha nature. Or “its principle is self evident.” In sum, there has never been a time when the time does not arrive, nor a buddha nature that does not appear.14

* * * * *

第十二祖馬鳴尊者、十三祖のために佛性海をとくにいはく、山河大地、皆依建立、三昧六通、由茲發現。

The Twelfth Ancestor, the Venerable Aśvaghoṣa, in teaching the ocean of the buddha nature to the Thirteenth Ancestor, said,

The mountains, rivers, and the earth
Are all constructed dependent upon it;
Samādhi and the six powers
Appear from here.15

しかあれはば、この山河大地、みな佛性海なり。皆依建立といふは、建立せる正當恁麼時、これ山河大地なり。すでに皆依建立といふ、しるべし、佛性海のかたちはかくのごとし。さらに内外中間にかかはるべきにあらず。恁麼ならば、山河をみるは佛性をみるなり、佛性をみるは驢腮馬觜をみるなり。皆依は全依なり、依全なりと、會取し、不會取するなり。三昧六通、由茲發現。しるべし、諸三昧の發現未現、おなじく皆依佛性なり。全六通の由茲不由茲、ともに皆依佛性なり。六神通はただ阿笈摩教にいふ六神通にあらず、六といふは、前三三後三三を六神通波羅蜜といふ。しかあれば、六神通は明明百草頭、明明佛祖意なりと參究することなかれ。六神通に滞累せしむといへども、佛性海の朝宗に罣礙するものなり。

     Therefore, these “mountains, rivers, and the earth” are all “the ocean of the buddha nature.” To say that they “are all constructed dependent upon it” means that the very time they are constructed is the “mountains, rivers, and the earth.” Since it is said that they “are all constructed dependent upon it,” we should realize that such is the shape of “the ocean of buddha nature”; it has nothing beyond this to do with inside, outside or in between. If such is the case, to see the mountains and rivers is to see the buddha nature; to see the buddha nature is to see “an ass’ jaw and a horse’s mouth.” “All . . . dependent,” we understand — and we do not understand — as “wholly dependent,” as “dependent on the whole.”16

     “Samādhi and the six powers appear from here”: we should realize that “the appearance” and the non-appearance of the samādhis are equally “all dependent” on the buddha nature; the “from here” and the not “from here” of the whole of the six powers are both “all dependent” on the buddha nature. The six spiritual powers are not just the six spiritual powers spoken of in the teachings of the Āgamas: “six” means that “the former three and three, the latter three and three” are the pāramitā of the six spiritual powers. Therefore, do not investigate the six spiritual powers as being “clear and bright, the hundred grasses; clear and bright, the intention of the buddhas and ancestors.” Even if they are constricted by the six spiritual powers, they are obstructions in the flow to the source in the ocean of the buddha nature.17

* * * * *

{13}

五祖大滿禪師、蘄州黄梅人也。無父而生。童兒得道。乃栽松道者也。初在蘄州西山栽松、遇四祖出遊。告道者、吾欲傳法與汝、汝已年邁。若待汝再來、吾尚遅汝。師諾。遂往周氏家女托生。因抛濁港中。神物護持、七日不損。因収養矣。至七歳爲童子。於黄梅路上逢四祖大醫禪師。祖見師、雖是小兒、骨相奇秀、異乎常童。祖見問曰、汝何姓。師答曰、姓即有、不是常姓。祖曰、是何姓。師答曰、是佛性。祖曰、汝無佛性。師答曰、佛性空故、所以言無。祖識其法器、[俾爲侍者] 俾侍者至其家、於父母所乞令出家。父母以宿縁故、殊無難色捨爲弟子。 後付正法眼藏。居黄梅東山、大振玄風。

     The Fifth Ancestor, the Chan Master Daman was from Huangmei in Qizhou. He was born without a father, gained the way as a child, and then was a practitioner who grew pines. He was growing pines on Xishan in Qizhou when he first encountered the Fourth Ancestor on a visit there.
[The Fourth Ancestor] addressed the practitioner, “I want to transmit the dharma to you, but your years are already full. If you wait till you come again, I will delay it for you.”
     The master agreed.
     Thereafter, he was born by a woman of the Zhou family. He was thrown into a dirty waterway but was protected from harm by a spirit for seven days. He was then taken in and raised. As a boy of seven, he met the Fourth Ancestor, the Chan Master Dayi, on the road in Huangmei. The ancestor saw that, although a child, the master’s build was remarkably fine, different from that of an ordinary child. Seeing this, the ancestor asked, “What is your name?”
     The master answered, “I have a name, but it’s not an ordinary name.”
     The ancestor said, “What is this name?”
     The master answered, “It’s the buddha nature.”
     The ancestor said, “You have no buddha nature.”
     The master replied, “It’s because the buddha nature is empty that you say I have none.”
     The ancestor, recognizing that he was a vessel of the dharma, made him his attendant. Later, he transmitted the treasury of the eye of the true dharma. [The master] resided on Dongshan at Huangmei, where he greatly wielded the “dark style.”18

しかあれはばすなはち、祖師の道取を參究するに、四祖いはく汝何姓は、その宗旨あり。むかしは何國人の人あり、何姓の姓あり。なんぢは何姓と爲説するなり。たとへば吾亦如是、汝亦如是と道取するがごとし。

     Therefore, when investigating these sayings of the ancestral masters, there is an essential point to the Fourth Ancestor’s saying, “What is your name?” In ancient times, there was a person from the country of He [“what”], who had the He family name. He is saying to him, “You are of the “what” family.” It is like saying, “I’m also like this, you’re also like this.”19

五祖いはく、姓即有、不是常姓。いはゆるは、有即姓は常姓にあらず、常姓は即有に不是なり。

     The Fifth Ancestor said, “I have a name, but it’s not an ordinary name.” That is, “being as itself a name” is not an ordinary name; an ordinary name “is not right” for “being as itself.”20

四祖いはく是何姓は、何は是なり、是を何しきたれり、これ姓なり。何ならしむるは是のゆゑなり、是ならしむるは何の能なり。姓は是也何也なり。これを蒿湯にも點ず、茶湯にも點ず、家常の茶飯ともするなり。

     The Fourth Ancestor’s saying, “What is this name?” means “what” is “this”; he has “what-ed” “this” — this is his “name.” For what makes it “what” is “this”; making it “this” is the function of “what.” His “name” is both “this” and “what.” We fix it as artemisia tea; we fix it as green tea; we make it our “everyday tea and rice.”21

五祖いはく是佛性。いはくの宗旨は、是は佛性なりとなり。何のゆゑに佛なるなり。是は何姓のみに究取しきたらんや、是すでに不是のとき佛性なり。しかあればすなはち、是は何なり、佛なりといへども、脱落しきたり、透脱しきたるに、かならず姓なり。その姓すなはち周なり。しかあれども、父にうけず、祖にうけず、母氏に相似ならず、傍觀に齊肩ならんや。

     The Fifth Ancestor said, “It’s the buddha nature.” The essential point of what he says is that “it’s” is “the buddha nature.” Because of “what,” it is the buddha. Has “it’s” been exhaustively investigated only in the name “what”? When “it’s” was [said to be] “it’s not,” it was “the buddha nature.” Therefore, while “it’s” is “what,” is the buddha, when they have been sloughed off, when they have been liberated, it is necessarily his “name.” That name is Zhou. Nevertheless, he does not get it from his father; he does not get it from his ancestors; it does not resemble his mother’s family name; how could it be of equal stature with onlookers?22

四祖いはく汝無佛性。いはゆる道取は、汝はたれにあらず、汝に一任すれども、無佛性なりと開演するなり。しるべし、學すべし、いまはいかなる時節にして無佛性なるぞ。佛頭にして無佛性なるか、佛向上にして無佛性なるか。七通を逼塞することなかれ、八達を摸索することなかれ。無佛性は一時の三昧なりと修習することもあり。佛性成佛のとき、無佛性なるか、佛性發心のとき、無佛性なるかと問取すべし、道取すべし。露柱をしても問取せしむべし、露柱にも問取すべし、佛性をしても問取せしむべし。

     The Fourth Ancestor said, “You have no buddha nature.” This saying proclaims, “Although I allow that ‘you’ are ‘you’ and not another, you are ‘no buddha nature.’” We should know, we should study, at what time now is it that he is “no buddha nature”? Is it at the head of the buddha that he is “no buddha nature”? Is it “beyond the buddha” that he is “no buddha nature”? Do not block up “the seven penetrations”; do not grope for “the eight masteries.” There are instances when “no buddha nature” is also studied as a momentary samādhi. When the buddha nature becomes a buddha, is this “no buddha nature”? When the buddha nature arouses the aspiration [to become a buddha], is this “no buddha nature”? We should ask this; we should say it. We should make the columns ask it; we should ask the columns. We should make the buddha nature ask it.23

しかあればすなはち、無佛性の道、はるかに四祖の祖室よりきこゆるものなり。黄梅に見聞し、趙州に流通し、大潙に擧揚す。無佛性の道、かならず精進すべし、趑趄することなかれ。無佛性たどりぬべしといへども、何なる標準あり、汝なる時節あり、是なる投機あり、周なる同姓あり、直趣なり。

     Therefore, the words “no buddha nature” are something heard far beyond the ancestral rooms of the Fourth Ancestor. They are seen in Huangmei; they circulate to Zhaozhou; they are raised by Dayi. The words “no buddha nature,” we should pursue with vigour; do not falter or hesitate. Though we may well have lost our bearings in “no buddha nature,” we have “what” as the standard, “you” as the time, “this” as the accord, Zhou as the same name; and we advance directly.24

五祖いはく佛性空故、所以言無。あきらかに道取す、空は無にあらず。佛性空を道取するに、半斤といはず、八兩といはず、無と言取するなり。空なるゆゑに空といはず、無なるゆゑに無といはず、佛性空なるゆゑに無といふ。しかあれば、無の片片は空を道取する標榜なり、空は無を道取する力量なり。いはゆるの空は、色即是空の空にあらず。色即是空といふは、色を強爲して空とするにあらず、空をわかちて色を作家せるにあらず、空是空の空なるべし。空是空の空といふは、空裏一片石なり。しかあればすなはち、佛性無と佛性空と佛性有と、四祖五祖、問取道取。

     The Fifth Ancestor said, “It’s because the buddha nature is empty that you say I have none.” He says it clearly: being “empty” is not “having none.” In saying “the buddha nature is empty,” without calling it “a half catty,” without calling it “eight tael,” he says he “has none.” He does not say it is “empty” because it is emptiness; he does not say he “has none” because it is non-existence: he says he “has none” because it is the “emptiness of the buddha nature.” Therefore, the pieces of his “having none” are the signposts of his saying it is “empty”; it’s being “empty” is the power to say “I have none.”25

     This “emptiness” is not the “emptiness” of “form is itself emptiness.” “Form is itself emptiness” does not mean that “form” is forced into “emptiness”; it does not mean that “emptiness” has been divided up to author “form”: it is the “emptiness” of “emptiness is emptiness.” The “emptiness” of “emptiness is emptiness” is “a single stone in space.” Therefore, the “non-existence of the buddha nature,” the “emptiness of the buddha nature,” the “existence of the buddha nature” — this is what the Fourth Ancestor and the Fifth Ancestor are asking about and talking about.26

* * * * *

震旦第六祖曹谿山大鑑禪師、そのかみ黄梅山に參ぜしはじめ、五祖とふ、なんぢいづれのところよりかきたれる。六祖いはく、嶺南人なり。五祖いはく、きたりてなにごとをかもとむる。六祖いはく、作佛をもとむ。五祖いはく、嶺南人無佛性、いかにしてか作佛せん。

     When the Sixth Ancestor of Cīnasthāna, the Chan Master Dajian of Caoxi shan, first visited Huangmei shan, the Fifth Ancestor asked, “Where have you come from?”
     The Sixth Ancestor said, “I’m a person of Lingnan.”
     The Fifth Ancestor said, “What did you come here for?”
     The Sixth Ancestor said, “I want to make a buddha.”
     The Fifth Ancestor said, “A person of Lingnan has no buddha nature. How can you make a buddha?”27

この嶺南人無佛性といふ、嶺南人は佛性なしといふにあらず、嶺南人は佛性ありといふにあらず、嶺南人無佛性となり。いかにしてか作佛せんといふは、いかなる作佛をか期するといふなり。

     This “a person of Lingnan has no buddha nature” does not mean that a person of Lingnan does not have the buddha nature; it does not mean that a person of Lingnan has the buddha nature: it is “the no buddha nature of the person of Lingnan.” “How can you make a buddha?” means “what kind of making a buddha are you expecting?”28

おほよそ佛性の道理、あきらむる先達すくなし。諸阿笈摩教および經論師のしるべきにあらず。佛祖の兒孫のみ單傳するなり。佛性の道理は、佛性は成佛よりさきに具足せるにあらず、成佛よりのちに具足するなり。佛性かならず成佛と同參するなり。この道理、よくよく參究功夫すべし、三二十年も功夫參學すべし。十聖三賢のあきらむるところにあらず。衆生有佛性、衆生無佛性と道取する、この道理なり。成佛已來に具足する法なりと參學する、正的なり。かくのごとく學せざるは、佛法にあらざるべし。かくのごとく學せずば、佛法あへて今日にいたるべからず。もしこの道理あきらめざるには、成佛をあきらめず、見聞せざるなり。

     Generally speaking, there are few predecessors who have clarified the principle of the buddha nature. The teachings of the Āgamas and the teachers of the sūtras and treatises could not know it; only the descendants of the buddhas and ancestors singly transmit it. The principle of the buddha nature is that one is not endowed with the buddha nature before becoming a buddha: one is endowed with it after becoming a buddha. The buddha nature always studies together with becoming a buddha. This principle, we should make concentrated effort on and fully investigate; we should study it and make concentrated effort on it for twenty or thirty years. It is not something clarified by “the ten holy and three worthy.” To say “beings have the buddha nature,” “beings have no buddha nature” — this is that principle. To study this as the dharma that one is endowed [with the buddha nature] after becoming a buddha is right on the mark. If it is not studied in this way, it is not the buddha dharma; if it had not been studied in this way, the buddha dharma would not have reached us today. Those who have not clarified this principle have not clarified, have not seen or heard of, becoming a buddha.29

このゆゑに、五祖は向他道するに、嶺南人無佛性と爲道するなり。見佛聞法の最初に、難得難聞なるは衆生無佛性なり。或從知識、或從經卷するに、きくことのよろこぶべきは衆生無佛性なり。一切衆生無佛性を見聞覺知に參飽せざるものは、佛性いまだ見聞覺知せざるなり。六祖、もはら作佛をもとむるに、五祖、よく六祖を作佛せしむるに、他の道取なし、善巧なし。ただ嶺南人無佛性といふ。しるべし、無佛性の道取聞取、これ作佛の直道なりといふことを。しかあれば、無佛性の正當恁麼時、すなはち作佛なり。無佛性いまだ見聞せず、道取せざるは、いまだ作佛せざるなり。

     Therefore, the Fifth Ancestor says to him, “A person of Lingnan has no buddha nature.” When one first sees the buddha and hears the dharma, what is difficult to acquire, difficult to hear, is that “beings have no buddha nature”; “whether from a friend, whether from a scripture,” what is a joy to hear is that “beings have no buddha nature.” Those who have not “studied their fill” of seeing, hearing, perceiving, and knowing that “all living beings have no buddha nature” have not yet seen, heard, perceived or known the buddha nature. When the Sixth Ancestor sought solely to “make a buddha,” the Fifth Ancestor, in order to “make a buddha” of the Sixth Ancestor, had no other words, no other ingenuous device: he just said, “A person of Lingnan has no buddha nature.” We should recognize the fact that speaking and hearing of “no buddha nature” — this is the direct path to “making a buddha.” Therefore, the very moment of “no buddha nature” is itself “making a buddha.” Those who have not yet seen or heard, who have not yet spoken of, “no buddha nature have not yet “made a buddha.”30

六祖いはく、人有南北なりとも、佛性無南北なり。この道取を擧して、句裏を功夫すべし。南北の言、まさに赤心に照顧すべし。六祖道得の句に宗旨あり。いはゆる、人は作佛すとも、佛性は作佛すべからずといふ一隅の搆得あり。六祖これをしるやいなや。

     The Sixth Ancestor said, “People may have north and south, but the buddha nature has no north and south.”31

     We should take up this saying and make concentrated effort on what is within the phrases. We should reflect with bare mind on the words “north and south.” There is a significant point in the phrase spoken by the Sixth Ancestor: it captures one corner of [the fact that] “people” may “make a buddha,” but the buddha nature does not “make a buddha.” Did the Sixth Ancestor know this?32

四祖五祖の道取する無佛性の道得、はるかに㝵礙の力量ある一隅をうけて、迦葉佛およひ釋迦牟尼佛等の諸佛は、作佛し轉法するに、悉有佛性と道取する力量あるなり。悉有の有、なんぞ無無の無に嗣法せざらん。しかあれば、無佛性の語、はるかに四祖五祖の室よりきこゆるなり。このとき、六祖その人ならば、この無佛性の語を功夫すべきなり。有無の無はしばらくおく、いかならんかこれ佛性と問取すべし、なにものかこれ佛性とたづぬべし。いまの人も、佛性とききぬれば、さらにいかなるかこれ佛性と問取せず、佛性の有無等の義をいふがごとし、これ倉卒なり。しかあれば、諸無の無は、無佛性の無に學すべし。六祖の道取する人有南北、佛性無南北の道、ひさしく再三撈摝すべし、まさに撈波子に力量あるべきなり。六祖の道取する人有南北、佛性無南北の道、しづかに拈放すべし。おろかなるやからおもはくは、人間には質礙すれば南北あれども、佛性は虚融にして南北の論におよばずと六祖は道取せりけるか、と推度するは、無分の愚蒙なるべし。この邪解を抛却して、直須勤學すべし。

     In making a buddha and turning the dharma, the Buddha Kāśyapa and the Buddha Śākyamuni, and the rest of the buddhas have the power to say, “in their entirety have the buddha nature,” by drawing from afar on one corner, which has the power to delimit, of the words “no buddha nature” spoken by the Fourth Ancestor and Fifth Ancestor. How could the “being” of the “entirety of being” not succeed to the dharma of the “no” of “no no”? Therefore, the words “no buddha nature” are heard far beyond the rooms of the Fourth Ancestor and Fifth Ancestor.33

     At this point, if the Sixth Ancestor is “that person,” he should make concentrated effort on the words “no buddha nature.” Leaving aside the “no” of being or non-being, he should ask, “what is the buddha nature?” He should inquire, “what thing is the buddha nature?” People today as well, once they have heard “buddha nature,” without going on to ask what the buddha nature is, seem to talk about the meaning of the being and non-being of the buddha nature. This is precipitate. Therefore, we should study the “no” of various “nos” in the “no” of “no buddha nature.” The words spoken by the Sixth Ancestor, “People have north and south; the buddha nature has no north and south,” we should long “scoop up two or three times”; there should be power in the scoop. We should quietly take up and let go of the words spoken by the Sixth Ancestor: “People have north and south; the buddha nature has no north and south.” The foolish think that the Sixth Ancestor might have been saying that, since humans are obstructed by materiality, they have north and south, but the buddha nature, being vacant and pervasive, is beyond discussion of north and south. Those who speculate like this must be indiscriminate simpletons. They should discard this false understanding and “straightaway study with diligence.”34

* * * * *

六祖示門人行昌云、無常者即佛性也。有常者即善惡一切諸法分別心也。

     The Sixth Ancestor addressed his follower Xing Chang, saying, “‘Impermanence’ means the buddha nature. ‘Permanence’ means the mind that discriminates all the dharmas, good and bad.”35

いはゆる六祖道の無常は、外道二乘等の測度にあらず。二乘外道の鼻祖鼻末、それ無常なりといふとも、かれら窮盡すべからざるなり。しかあれば、無常のみづから無常を説著行著證著せんは、みな無常なるべし。今以現自身得度者、即現自身而爲説法なり、これ佛性なり。さらに或現長法身、或現短法身なるべし。常聖これ無常なり、常凡これ無常なり。常凡聖ならんは、佛性なるべからず。小量の愚見なるべし、測度の管見なるべし。佛者小量身也、性者小量作也。このゆゑに六祖道取す、無常者佛性也。

     The “impermanence” spoken of by the Sixth Ancestor is not what is calculated by the likes of the alien paths and two vehicles. The two vehicles and the alien paths, from first founder to final follower, may say it is impermanent, but they do not exhaust it. Therefore, impermanence itself preaching, practicing, and verifying impermanence — they are all impermanent. Now, if there are those who attain deliverance by its manifesting its own body, then it manifests its own body and preaches the dharma to them — this is the “buddha nature.” Going further, it may appear as a “long dharma body,” it may appear as a “short dharma body.” The permanent noble is impermanent; the permanent commoner is impermanent; were there to be permanent commoners or nobles, it would not be the buddha nature: it would be a small, stupid view; it would be a calculating, narrow view: “the buddha is a small body; the nature is a small activity.” Hence, the Sixth Ancestor said, “Impermanence is the buddha nature.”36

常者未轉なり。未轉といふは、たとひ能斷と變ずとも、たとひ所斷と化すれども、かならずしも去來の蹤跡にかかはれず。ゆゑに常なり。

     “Permanence” means “unconverted.” “Unconverted” means that, even though it may change to “eradicating,” even though it may transform to the “eradicated,” this does not necessarily have anything to do with the traces of coming and going. Therefore, it is “permanent.”37

しかあれば、草木叢林の無常なる、すなはち佛性なり。人物身心の無常なる、これ佛性なり。國土山河の無常なる、これ佛性なるによりてなり。阿耨多羅三藐三菩提、これ佛性なるがゆゑに無常なり。大般涅槃、これ無常なるがゆゑに佛性なり。もろもろの二乘の小見および經論師の三藏等は、この六祖の道を驚疑怖畏すべし。もし驚疑せんことは、魔外の類なり。

     Therefore, that the grasses, trees, thickets and groves are impermanent is the buddha nature; that humans and things, body and mind are impermanent — this is because they are the buddha nature. That the lands, mountains, and rivers are impermanent — this is the buddha nature. Annuttara-samyak-saṃbodhi, because it is the buddha nature, is impermanent; the great parinirvāṇa, because it is impermanent, is the buddha nature. All those with the small views of the two vehicles and the tripiṭaka master teachers of the sūtras and treatises should be “alarmed, dubious, and frightened” at these words of the Sixth Ancestor. If they are alarmed and dubious, they are grouped with Māra and the aliens.38

* * * * *

第十四祖龍樹尊者、梵云那伽閼剌樹那、唐云龍樹亦龍勝、亦云龍猛。西天竺國人也。至南天竺國。彼國之人、多信福業。尊者爲説妙法。聞者遞相謂曰、人有福業、世間第一。徒言佛性、誰能覩之。尊者曰、汝欲見佛性、先須除我慢。彼人曰、佛性大耶小耶。尊者曰、佛性非大非小、非廣非狭、無福無報、不死不生。彼聞理勝、悉廻初心。尊者復於座上現自在身、如滿月輪。一切衆會、唯聞法音、不覩師相。

     The Fourteenth Ancestor, the Venerable Nāgārjuna, is called Nāgārjuna in the language of the brahmans; in the language of the Tang, he is called Longshu or Longsheng or, again, Longmeng. He was from the country of the western Sindh. He went to the south of the country of Sindh, where many of the people of the country believed in meritorious deeds.
     When the Venerable preached the wondrous dharma to them, the hearers said to each other, “For people to have meritorius deeds is the foremost thing in the world. He talks futilely of the buddha nature, but who can see it?”
     The Venerable said, “If you want to see the buddha nature, first you must eliminate self-conceit.”
     They said, “Is the buddha nature big or small?”
     The Venerable said, “The buddha nature is neither big nor small, neither broad nor narrow; it is without merit and without recompense; it does not die and is not born.”
     Hearing the excellence of this principle, they all converted to the beginner’s mind. The Venerable, at his seat, subsequently manifested his body of freedom, like the disk of the full moon. All the assembly merely heard the sound of the dharma but did not see the master’s form.39

於彼衆中、有長者子迦那提婆、謂衆會曰、識此相否。衆會曰、而今我等目所未見、耳所未聞、心無所識、身無所住。提婆曰、此是尊者現佛性相、以示我等。何以知之。蓋以無相三昧、形如滿月。佛性之義、廓然虚明。言訖輪相即隠。復居本座、而説偈言、身現圓月相、以表諸佛體、説法無其形、用辯非聲色。

     In that assembly was Kāṇadeva, the son of a rich man. He said to the assembly, “Do you recognize this form?”
     The assembly said, “It’s something our eyes have never seen before, something our ears have never heard; our minds have no recognition of it, our bodies, no place for it.”
     Deva said, “This is the Venerable’s manifesting the form of the buddha nature to show it to us. How do we know it? Because the formless samādhi has a shape like the full moon. The meaning of the buddha nature is wide open, spacious and clear.”
     Once he had said this, the form of the disk then vanished, and [Nārgārjuna] was once again at his seat. Then, he taught a verse, which said,

I manifest my body in the round moon form,
Showing by which the body of the buddhas.
My preaching of the dharma is without any shape;
The explanations, not sound or sight.40

しるべし、眞箇の用辨は聲色の即現にあらず。眞箇の説法は無其形なり。尊者かつてひろく佛性を爲説する、不可数量なり。いまはしばらく一隅を略擧するなり。

     We should realize that true “explanation” is not “then it manifests” “sound and sight.” True “preaching of the dharma” is “without any shape.” The Venerable’s teachings on the buddha nature are innumerable; here, for a time, we take up in brief one corner of them.41

汝欲見佛性、先須除我慢。この爲説の宗旨、すごさず辦肯すべし。見はなきにあらず、その見これ除我慢なり。我もひとつにあらず、慢も多般なり、除法また萬差なるべし。しかあれども、これらみな見佛性なり。眼見目覩に習ふべし。

     “If you want to see the buddha nature, first you must eliminate self-conceit.” We should acknowledge the significance of this teaching without overlooking it. It is not that there is no “seeing”; but that seeing is itself “eliminating self-conceit.” The “self” is not one, “conceit” is of many types, and the method of “eliminating” must also be of myriad variations. Nevertheless, they are all “seeing the buddha nature.” We should study this in the eye’s seeing what the eye sees.42

佛性非大非小等の道取、よのつねの凡夫二乘に例諸することなかれ。偏枯に佛性は廣大ならんとのみおもへる、邪念をたくはへきたるなり。大にあらず小にあらざらん正當恁麼時の道取に罣礙せられん道理、いま聴取するがごとく思量すべきなり。思量なる聴取を使得するがゆゑに。

     Do not exemplify the saying, “the buddha nature is neither big nor small,” and so on, in [the understandings of] the commoners and two vehicles. Thinking lopsidely only that it means the buddha nature must be broad and big is harboring false thoughts. The principle delimited by this saying right now that it is not large and it is not small, we should think of just as we hear it here; for we make use of hearing that is our thinking.43

しばらく尊者の道著する偈を聞取すべし。いはゆる身現圓月相、以表諸佛體なり。すでに諸佛體を以表しきたれる身現なるがゆゑに、圓月相なり。しかあれば、一切の長短方圓、この身現に學習すべし。身と現とに轉疎なるは、圓月相にくらきのみにあらず、諸佛體にあらざるなり。愚者おもはく、尊者かりに化身を現せるを圓月相といふとおもふは、佛道を相承せざる黨類の邪念なり。いづれのところのいづれのときか、非身の他現ならん。まさにしるべし、このとき尊者は高座せるのみなり。身現の儀は、いまのたれ人も坐せるがごとくありしなり。この身、これ圓月相現なり。身現は方圓にあらず、有無にあらず。隠顯にあらず、八萬四千蘊にあらず、ただ身現なり。圓月相といふ、這裏是甚麼處在、説細説麤月なり。この身現は先須除我慢なるがゆゑに龍樹にあらず、諸佛體なり。以表するがゆゑに諸佛體を透脱す。しかあるがゆゑに佛邊にかかはれず。佛性の、滿月を形如する虚明ありとも、圓月相を排列するにあらず。いはんや用辨も聲色にあらず、身現も色心にあらず、蘊處界にあらず。蘊處界に一似なりといへども、以表なり、諸佛體なり。これ説法蘊なり、それ無其形なり。無其形さらに無相三昧なるとき、身現なり。一衆いま圓月相を望見すといへども、目所未見なるは、説法蘊の轉機なり、現自在身の非聲色なり。即隠即現は、輪相の進歩退歩なり。復於座上、現自在身の正當恁麼時は、一切衆會、唯聞法音するなり、不覩師相なるなり。

     We should listen for a while to the verse spoken by the Venerable. “I manifest my body in the round moon form, showing by which the body of the buddhas.” It is “the round moon form” because it is the “the body manifesting” that has been “showing by which” the “body of the buddhas.” Therefore, we should study all long and short, square and round, in this “body manifesting.” For the “body” and its “manifestation” to be alienated from each other is not only to be in the dark about “the round moon form”; it is not “the body of the buddhas.” The thinking of fools who think the Venerable temporarily manifested a transformation body is the false thought of a bunch that has not succeeded to the way of the buddha. Where and when would he manifest what is not his body?44

     We should realize that this is not just the Venerable assuming the high seat at that time: his conduct in manifesting his body was like anyone’s sitting now. This body — this is the manifestation of the round moon form. “The body manifesting” is not square or round; it is not being or nonbeing; it is not hidden or apparent; it is not an aggregate of 84,000: it is just “the body manifesting.” “The round moon form”: “where are we, that we’re talking about a fine or rough” moon? Since this “body manifesting” is “first you must eliminate self-conceit,” it is not Nārgājuna: it is “the body of the buddhas.” Since it “shows by which,” it passes through and beyond “the body of the buddhas.” Therefore, it has nothing to do with the confines of the buddha.45

     Though the buddha nature has a “spacious clarity” that takes a “shape like” “the full moon,” it is not the case that it lines up with the “round moon form,” let alone that its “explanation” is “sound or sight,” or its “body manifesting” is form and mind, or the aggregates, fields, and elements. Even if we say it completely resembles the aggregates, fields, and elements, it is “showing by which”; it is “the body of the buddhas.” It is the aggregate of dharma preached; and that is “without any shape.” When “without any shape” is further “the formless samādhi,” it is “the body manifesting.” Even if we say the entire assembly was here gazing upon a “round moon form,” it is “something our eyes have never seen”; for it is the turning point of the aggregate of dharma preached; it is the “not sound or sight” of “manifesting his body of freedom.” “Then vanished” and “then manifest” are the “stepping forward and stepping back” of the form of the disk. The very moment when, “at his seat, he subsequently manifested his body of freedom” is “all the assembly merely hearing the sound of the dharma,” is “not seeing the master’s form.”46

尊者の嫡嗣迦那提婆尊者、あきらかに滿月相を識此し、圓月相を識此し、身現を識此し、諸佛性を識此し、諸佛體を識此せり。入室瀉瓶の衆たとひおほしといへども、提婆と齊肩ならざるべし。提婆は半座の尊なり、衆會の導師なり、全座の分座なり。正法眼藏無上大法を正傳せること、靈山に摩訶迦葉尊者の座元なりしがごとし。龍樹未廻心のさき、外道の法にありしときの弟子おほかりしかども、みな謝遣しきたれり。龍樹すでに佛祖となれりしときは、ひとり提婆を付法の正嫡として、大法眼藏を正傳す。これ無上佛道の單傳なり。しかあるに、僭僞の邪群、ままに自稱すらく、われらも龍樹大士の法嗣なり。論をつくり、義をあつむる、おほく龍樹の手をかれり。龍樹の造にあらず。むかしすてられし群徒の、人天を惑亂するなり。佛弟子はひとすぢに、提婆の所傳にあらざらんは、龍樹の道にあらずとしるべきなり。これ正信得及なり。しかあるに、僞なりとしりながら稟受するものおほかり。謗大般若の衆生の愚蒙、あはれみかなしむべし。

     The Venerable’s legitimate heir, the Venerable Kāṇadeva, clearly “recognized this” full moon form, “recognized this” round moon form, “recognized this” body manifesting, “recognized this” nature of the buddhas, “recognized this” body of the buddhas. Though there may have been many who “entered the room and drained the jug,” they could not have been of equal stature with Deva. Deva was a venerable with a co-seat, a leader of the assembly, a shared seat with the whole seat. His correct transmission of the treasury of the eye of the true dharma, the unexcelled great dharma, was like Venerable Mahākāśyapa’s being the prime seat on Numinous Mountain.47

     Prior to Nāgārjuna’s conversion, he had many disciples from the time he followed the teachings of the alien paths; but he sent them all away. Once Nāgārjuna became a buddha and ancestor, he correctly transmitted the treasury of the eye of the great dharma soley to Deva as the true heir of the bequest of the dharma. This was the single transmission of the unexcelled way of the buddha. Nevertheless, a false bunch of usurpers wilfully claimed of themselves, “We are also the dharma heirs of Nāgārjuna the Great One.” They made treatises and put together doctrines, which they often ascribe to Nāgārjuna’s hand. They are not Nāgārjuna’s works; they are the previously abandoned bunch deluding and confusing humans and devas. Disciples of the Buddha should know without doubt that what was not transmitted to Deva is not the word of Nāgārjuna; this is believing correctly. Nevertheless, there are many who accept them knowing they are apocryphal. How pitiful, how sad, the simpletons among living beings who slander the great prajñā.48

迦那提婆尊者、ちなみに龍樹尊者の身現をさして、衆會につげていはく、此是尊者現佛性相、以示我等、何以知之、蓋以無相三昧、形如滿月、佛性之義、廓然虚明なり。

     The Venerable Kāṇadeva then pointed out the Venerable Nāgārjuna’s body manifesting and admonished the assembly, saying,

This the Venerable’s manifesting the form of the buddha nature to show it to us. How do we know it? Because the formless samādhi has a shape like the full moon. The meaning of the buddha nature is wide open, spacious and clear.49

いま天上人間、大千法界に流布せる佛法を見聞せる前後の皮袋、たれか道取せる、身現相は佛性なりと。大千界には、ただ提婆尊者のみ道取せるなり。餘者はただ、佛性は眼見耳聞心識等にあらず、とのみ道取するなり。身現は佛性なり、としらざるゆゑに道取せざるなり。祖師のをしむにあらざれども、眼耳ふさがれて見聞することあたはざるなり。身識いまだおこらずして、了別することあたはざるなり。無相三昧の形如滿月なるを望見し禮拝するに、目未所覩なり。佛性之義廓然虚明なり。

     Among the prior and later skinbags who have seen and heard the buddha dharma that has now spread among devas and humans and throughout the dharma realms of the great chiliocosm, who else has said that the form of the body manifesting is the buddha nature? In the great chiliocosm, only the Venerable Deva has said it. The others say only that the buddha nature is not something the eye sees or the ear hears or the mind recognizes; they have not said it because they do not know that the body manifesting is the buddha nature. It is not that the ancestral master is begrudging, but they close their eyes and ears and cannot see or hear him. Never having recognized it with their bodies, they cannot discern it. While gazing upon and bowing to the the fact that the formless samādhi is “shaped like the full moon,” it is not something their eyes have seen. It is “the meaning of the buddha nature, wide open, spacious and clear.”50

しかあれば、身現の説佛性なる、虚明なり、廓然なり。説佛性の身現なる、以表諸佛體なり。いづれの一佛二佛か、この以表を佛體せざらん。佛體は身現なり、身現なる佛性あり。四大五蘊と道取し會取する佛量祖量も、かへりて身現の造次なり。すでに諸佛體といふ、蘊處界のかくのごとくなるなり。一切の功徳、この功徳なり。佛功徳は、この身現を究盡し、嚢括するなり。一切無量無邊の功徳の往來は、この身現の一造次なり。

     Therefore, that the body manifesting is the preaching of the buddha nature is “a spacious clarity,” is “a wide openness”; that the preaching of the dharma nature is the body manifesting is “showing by which the body of the buddhas.” Which one buddha or two buddhas does not “buddha body” this “showing by which”? The buddha body is the body manifesting, has a buddha nature that is the body manifesting. Even the measure of a buddha or the measure of an ancestor that speaks of and understands it as the four major elements and five aggregates is the hurried act of the body manifesting. Since we have called them “the body of the buddhas,” the aggregates, fields, and elements are like this. All their virtues are this virtue. The virtues of the buddha exhaust and envelop this body manifesting; the comings and goings of all his innumerable, limitless virtues are a single hurried act of this body manifesting.51

しかあるに龍樹提婆師資よりのち、三國の諸方にある前代後代、ままに佛學する人物、いまだ龍樹提婆のごとく道取せず。いくばくの經師論師等か、佛祖の道を蹉過する。大宋國むかしよりこの因縁を畫せんとするに、身に畫し、心に畫し、空に畫し、壁に畫することあたはず、いたづらに筆頭に畫するに、法座上に如鏡なる一輪相を圖して、いま龍樹の身現圓月相とせり。すでに数百歳の霜華も開落して、人眼の金屑をなさんとすれども、あやまるといふ人なし。あはれむべし、萬事の蹉跎たることかくのごときなる。もし身現圓月相は一輪相なりと會取せば、眞箇の畫餅一枚なり。弄他せん、笑也笑殺人なるべし。かなしむべし、大宋一國の在家出家、いづれの一箇も龍樹のことばをきかず、しらず、提婆の道を通ぜず、みざること。いはんや身現に親切ならんや。圓月にくらし、滿月を虧闕せり。これ稽古のおろそかなるなり、慕古いたらざるなり。古佛新佛、さらに眞箇の身現にあふて、畫餅を賞翫することなかれ。

     Neverthess, following the master and disciple Nāgārjuna and Deva, the people who have periodically studied Buddhism in prior and later generations throughout all directions in the three countries have never said anything like Nāgārjuna and Deva. How many sūtra teachers and treatise teachers have missed the words of the buddhas and ancestors? In the country of the Great Song, from long ago, in trying to paint this episode, being unable to paint it on their bodies, paint it on their minds, paint it on the sky, paint it on a wall, they have pointlessly painted it with a brush, depicting above a dharma seat the form of a disk that is like a mirror and taking it as this [scene of] Nāgārjuna’s body manifesting a round moon form. Already for hundreds of years of frost and flowers blossoming and falling, they have formed gold dust in peoples eyes; yet no one has said they are wrong. What a pity that everything has gone amiss like this.52

     If we understand the body manifesting a round moon form to be the form of a disk, it is a real “painted cake.” To play around with that — what a laugh! How sad that not a single one among the householders and renunciates in the entire of country of the Great Song has heard or known Nāgārjuna’s words, has penetrated or seen Deva’s saying — much less has been intimate with the body manifesting. They are in the dark about the round moon; they have made the full moon wane. This is neglect of “investigating the ancient,” lack of “yearning for the ancients.” Old buddhas and new buddhas, going on to meet the real body manifesting, do not enjoy the painted cake!53

しるべし、身現圓月相の相を畫せんには、法座上に身現相あるべし。揚眉瞬目、それ端直なるべし。皮肉骨髄正法眼藏、かならず兀坐すべきなり。破顔微笑、つたはるべし、作佛作祖するがゆゑに。この畫いまだ月相ならざるには、形如なし、説法せず、聲色なし、用辨なきなり。もし身現をもとめば、圓月相を圖すべし。圓月相を圖せば、圓月相を圖すべし、身現圓月相なるがゆゑに。圓月相を畫せんとき、滿月相を圖すべし、滿月相を現ずべし。しかあるを、身現を畫せず、圓月を畫せず、滿月相を畫せず、諸佛體を圖せず、以表を體せず、説法を圖せず、いたづらに畫餅一枚を圖す、用作什麼。これを急著眼看せん、たれか直至如今飽不飢ならん。月は圓形なり、圓は身現なり。圓を學するに、一枚錢のごとく學することなかれ、一枚餅に相似することなかれ。身相圓月身なり、形如滿月形なり。一枚錢一枚餅は、圓に學習すべし。

     We should know that, in painting the form of “I manifest my body in the round moon form,” it should have the form of the body manifesting on the dharma seat. “Raising the eyebrows and blinking the eye” should be authentic. The “skin, flesh, bones, and marrow,” the “treasury of the eye of the true dharma,” should always be “sitting fixedly.” It should convey “the face breaking into a smile”; for it is “making a buddha, making an ancestor.” Where this painting fails to achieve the moon form, it has no “shape like,” it is not “preaching the dharma,” it has no “sound or sight,” it has no “explanations.”54

     If we seek the body manifesting, we should depict the “round moon form.” If we are depicting the round moon form, we should depict the round moon form; for [it says,] “I manifest my body in the round moon form.” When we paint the round moon form, we should depict the form of the full moon, we should manifest the form of the full moon. But without painting the body manifesting, without painting the round moon, without painting the form of the full moon, without depicting the body of the buddhas, without embodying the “showing by which,” without depicting the preaching of the dharma, just pointlessly to depict a painted cake — what good is that? Look at it: who would be “satisfied as I am now and not hungry”? The moon is a round shape; its roundness is the body manifesting: when you study its roundness, do not study it in something like a coin; do not liken it to a cake. The form of the body is the body of the round moon, “its shape like the full moon.” The coin and the cake, we should study in its roundness.55

予、雲遊のそのかみ、大宋國にいたる。嘉定十六年癸未秋のころ、はじめて阿育王山廣利禪寺にいたる。西廊の壁間に、西天東地三十三祖の變相を畫せるをみる。このとき領覽なし。のちに寶慶元年乙酉夏安居のなかにかさねていたるに、西蜀の成桂知客と廊下を行歩するついでに、予、知客にとふ、這箇是什麼變相。知客いはく、龍樹身現圓月相。かく道取する顔色に鼻孔なし、聲裏に語句なし。予いはく、眞箇是一枚畫餅相似。ときに知客大笑すといへども、笑裏無刀、破畫餅不得なり。すなはち知客と予と、舎利殿および六殊勝地等にいたるあひだ、数番擧揚すれども、疑著するにもおよばず。おのづから下語する僧侶も、おほく都不是なり。予いはく、堂頭にとふてみん。ときに堂頭は大光和尚なり。知客いはく、他無鼻孔對不得、如何得知。ゆゑに光老にとはず。恁麼道取すれども、桂兄も會すべからず。聞説する皮袋も道取せるなし。前後の粥飯頭、みるにあやしまず、あらためなをさず。又、畫することうべからざらん法は、すべて畫せざるべし。畫すべくは端直に畫すべし。しかあるに身現の圓月相なる、かつて畫せるなきなり。

     In the past, during my wanderings, I went to the country of the Great Song. In the autumn of the sixteenth year of Jiading (tenth stem, eighth branch), I went to the Guangli Chansi on Mt. Ayuwang. On the wall of the west corridor, I saw illustrations painted of the thirty-three ancestors of the Western Heavens and the Eastern Earth. At the time, I had no grasp of them.56
     Later, when I went again during the summer retreat of the first year of Baoqing (second stem, tenth branch), while walking in the corridor with the guest prefect Cheng Gui of Western Shu, I asked the guest prefect, “What is this portrait?”
     The guest prefect said, “Nāgārjuna’s body manifesting the round moon form.” He spoke like this with no nose on his face, no words in his voice.
     I said, “This really looks like a painted cake.” Whereupon, the guest prefect gave a great laugh, but “in the laugh there was no blade,” and he could not crack the painted cake.
     While the guest prefect and I were going to the śarīra hall and the six outstanding sites, I raised this with him several times, but he never even had doubts about it. The monks who volunteered comments were also largely completely wrong.
     I said, “Let’s ask the head of hall.” At the time, the head of hall was the Reverend Daguang.
     The guest prefect said, “He has no nose and couldn’t answer. What could he know?” So, we did not ask old Guang. Though he said this, brother Gui also did not understand. The “skin bags” we asked also had nothing to say.
     Prior and later heads of meals had seen it without wondering about it or correcting it. Furthermore, we should not paint anything that should not be painted; what should be painted, we should paint authentically. But the body manifesting the round moon form has never been painted.57

おほよそ佛性は、いまの慮知念覺ならんと見解することさめざるによりて、有佛性の道にも、無佛性の道にも、通達の端を失せるがごとくなり、道取すべきと學習するもまれなり。しるべし、この疎怠は廢せるによりてなり。諸方の粥飯頭、すべて佛性といふ道得を、一生いはずしてやみぬるもあるなり。あるひはいふ、聴教のともがら佛性を談ず、參禪の雲衲はいふべからず。かくのごとくのやからは、眞箇是畜生なり。なにといふ魔黨の、わが佛如來の道にまじはりけがさんとするぞ。聴教といふことの佛道にあるか、參禪といふことの佛道にあるか。いまだ聴教參禪といふこと、佛道にはなしとしるべし。

     In sum, because they have not awakened from the view that the buddha nature is our present consideration, knowledge, thought, and perception, they seem to have lost the point from which to penetrate either the words “have the buddha nature” or the words “have no buddha nature,” and even those who study that we should speak them are rare. We should realize that this neglect is due to a decline. Among the heads of meals in all quarters, there are even those who have spent their entire lives without ever speaking of the buddha nature. They say, “those who listen to the teachings talk of the buddha nature; those ‘robed in clouds’ who study Zen shouldn’t speak of it.” The bunch like this are real beasts. What minions of Māra are these that have infiltrated the way of our buddha, the tathāgata, and seek to defile it. Is there something called “listening to the teachings” in the way of the buddha? Is there something called “studying Zen” in the way of the buddha? We should realize that there has never been anything called “listening to the teachings” or “studying Zen” in the way of the buddha.58

* * * * *

杭州鹽官縣斎安國師は、馬祖下の尊宿なり。ちなみに衆にしめしていはく、一切衆生有佛性。

The National Master Qian of Yanguang district in Hangzhou was a venerable under Mazu. On one occasion, he addressed the assembly saying, “All living beings have the buddha nature.”59

いはゆる一切衆生の言、すみやかに參究すべし。一切衆生、その業道依正ひとつにあらず、その見まちまちなり。凡夫外道三乘五乘等、おのおのなるべし。いま佛道にいふ一切衆生は、有心者みな衆生なり、心是衆生なるがゆゑに。無心者おなじく衆生なるべし、衆生是心なるがゆゑに。しかあれば、心みなこれ衆生なり、衆生みなこれ有佛性なり。草木國土、これ心なり、心なるがゆゑに衆生なり、衆生なるがゆゑに有佛性なり。日月星辰これ心なり、心なるがゆゑに衆生なり、衆生なるがゆゑに有佛性なり。國師の道取する有佛性、それかくのごとし。もしかくのごとくにあらずは、佛道に道取する有佛性にあらざるなり。いま國師の道取する宗旨は、一切衆生有佛性のみなり。さらに衆生にあらざらんは、有佛性にあらざるべし。しばらく國師にとふべし、一切諸佛有佛性也無。かくのごとく問取し試験すべきなり。一切衆生即佛性といはず、一切衆生有佛性といふと參學すべし。有佛性の有、まさに脱落すべし。脱落は一條鐵なり、一條鐵は鳥道なり。しかあれば、一切佛性有衆生なり。これその道理は、衆生を説透するのみにあらず、佛性をも説透するなり。國師たとひ會得を道得に承當せずとも、承當の期なきにあらず。今日の道得、いたづらに宗旨なきにあらず。又、自己に具する道理、いまだかならずしもみづから會取せざれども、四大五陰もあり、皮肉骨髄もあり。しかあるがごとく、道取も一生に道取することもあり、道取にかかれる生生もあり

     We should quickly investigate the words “all living beings.” The deeds, paths, circumstantial and primary recompense of “all living beings” is not the same, and their views are various: they are commoners, on alien paths, on the three vehicles or five vehicles, and so on. In “all living beings” spoken of here on the way of the buddha, those with minds are “all living beings”; for the mind is living beings. Those without minds are similarly living beings; for living beings are mind. Therefore, all minds are living beings, and living beings all “have the buddha nature.” The grasses, trees and lands are mind; because they are mind, they are living beings; because they are living beings, they “have the buddha nature.” The sun, moon, and stars are mind; because they are mind, they are living beings; because they are living beings, they “have the buddha nature.”60

     [The words] “have the buddha nature” said by the National Master are like this. If they were not like this, they would not be a “having the buddha nature” said on the way of the buddha. The significance of what the National Master says here is only that “all living beings have the buddha nature”; to take this further, those who are not living beings would not “have the buddha nature.” Let us for the moment ask the National Master, “Do all buddhas have the buddha nature?” We should ask him and test him like this. We should study [the fact] that he does not say, “all living beings are the buddha nature”; he says, “all living beings have the buddha nature.” The “have” of “have the buddha nature,” he should slough off. Sloughing it off is “one strip of iron”; “one strip of iron” is “the path of the bird.” Therefore, all buddha natures have sentient being. The principle of this not only explains thoroughly living beings but explains thoroughly the buddha nature. Although the National Master may not have acceded to a saying of this understanding, this is not to say that he will have no opportunity to accede to it. Today’s saying is not pointlessly insignificant. Again, though he himself may not necessarily yet understand the principle with which he is endowed, he has “the four major elements and five aggregates,” he has “the skin, flesh, bones, and marrow.” In this way, in saying something, there is saying something one’s whole lifetime, there are lifetimes contingent on a saying.61

大潙山大圓禪師、あるとき衆にしめしていはく、一切衆生無佛性。

The Chan Master Dayuan of Mt. Dagui once addressed the assembly, saying, “All living beings have no buddha nature.”62

これをきく人天のなかに、よろこぶ大機あり、驚疑のたぐひなきにあらず。釋尊の説道は、一切衆生悉有佛性なり。大潙の説道は、一切衆生無佛性なり、有無の言理、はるかにことなるべし、道得の當不うたがひぬべし。しかあれども、一切衆生無佛性のみ佛道に長なり。鹽官有佛性の道、たとひ古佛とともに一隻の手をいだすににたりとも、なほこれ一條拄杖兩人舁なるべし。

     Among the humans and devas hearing this, there are those of great capacities who rejoice and no lack of those who are alarmed and dubious. What Śākyamuni, the Honored One, says is “all living beings in their entirety have the buddha nature”; what Dagui says is “all livings beings have no buddha nature.” There is a big difference between the meanings of “have” and “have no,” and which saying is correct should have been doubted. Nevertheless, “all living beings have no buddha nature” is superior on the way of the buddha. Yanguan’s saying, “have the buddha nature,” while it seems to extend a hand with the old buddha, is still “one staff borne by two people.”63

いま、大潙はしかあらず、一條拄杖呑兩人なるべし。いはんや國師は馬祖の子なり、大潙は馬祖の孫なり。しかあれども、法孫は師翁の道に老大なり、法子は師父の道に年少なり。いま大潙道の理致は、一切衆生無佛性を理致とせり。いまだ曠然縄墨外といはず。自家屋裏の經典、かくのごとくの受持あり。さらに摸索すべし、一切衆生なにとしてか佛性ならん、佛性あらん。もし佛性あるは、これ魔黨なるべし。魔子一枚を將來して、一切衆生にかさねんとす。佛性これ佛性なれば、衆生これ衆生なり。衆生もとより佛性を具足せるにあらず。たとひ具せんともとむとも、佛性はじめてきたるべきにあらざる宗旨なり。張公喫酒李公醉といふことなかれ。もしおのづから佛性あらんは、さらに衆生にあらず。すでに衆生あらんは、つひに佛性にあらず。

     But here, Dagui is not like that: he is “one staff swallowing up two people.” Moreover, the National Master is the child of Mazu, while Dagui is the grandchild of Mazu. Nevertheless, the dharma grandchild is an elder in the way of his master’s father, while the dharma child is a youth in the way of his master father. What Dagui says here by way of explication is “all living beings have no buddha nature.” He has not said that it is “a vastness beyond the line of ink”: he has this way of receiving and maintaining a scripture within the quarters of his own house.64

     We should grope further: how could all living beings be the buddha nature or have the buddha nature? Any that have the buddha nature must be minions of Māra; they bring in a son of Māra and try to pile him on “all living beings.” As the buddha nature is the buddha nature, so living beings are living beings. The point is that living beings are not endowed from the start with a buddha nature; and even though they seek to provide themselves with one, the buddha nature will not newly arrive. Do not say that “When Mr. Chang drinks wine, Mr. Li gets drunk.” Where there is inherently a buddha nature, that is not a living being; where there is already a living being, that will not eventually be a buddha nature.65

このゆゑに百丈いはく、説衆生有佛性、亦謗佛法僧。説衆生無佛性、亦謗佛法僧。しかあればすなはち、有佛性といひ、無佛性といふ、ともに謗となる。謗となるといふとも、道取せざるべきにはあらず。且問儞大潙百丈、しばらくきくべし、謗はすなはちなきにあらず、佛性は説得すやいまだしや。たとひ説得せば、説著を罣礙せん。説著あらば聞著と同參なるべし。また大潙にむかひていふべし、一切衆生無佛性は、たとひ道得すといふとも、一切佛性無衆生といはず、一切佛性無佛性といはず、いはんや一切諸佛無佛性は、夢也未見在なり。試擧看。

     Hence, Baizhang said, “To talk of living beings having the buddha nature is to slander the buddha, dharma, and saṅgha; to talk of living beings having no buddha nature is to slander the buddha, dharma, and saṅgha.” Therefore, both saying “have the buddha nature” and saying “have no buddha nature” become a slander. Though we say they become a slander, this does not mean one should not say them. Now, let us ask you, Dagui and Baizhang: we should ask a bit, it is not that there is no slander, but have you talked of the buddha nature or not? If you have talked of it, it delimits the talk; and where there is talking, it should “study together” with hearing. Again, we should say to Dagui: you may be able to say, “all living beings have no buddha nature,” but you do not say, “all buddha natures have no living being”; you do not say, “all buddha natures have no buddha nature.” Much less have you seen, even in your dreams, “all buddhas have no buddha nature.” Try taking this up.66

* * * * *

百丈山大智禪師、示衆云、佛是最上乘、是上上智、是佛道立此人、是佛有佛性、是導師、是使得無所礙風、是無礙慧。於後能使得因果、福智自由。是作車運載因果。處於生不被生之所留、處於死不被死之所礙、處於五陰如門開、不被五陰礙。去住自由、出入無難。若能恁麼、不論階梯勝劣、乃至蟻子之身、但能恁麼、盡是淨妙國土、不可思議。

The Chan Master Dazhi of Mt. Baizhang addressed the assembly saying,

Buddha is the supreme vehicle; it is the highest wisdom; it is this person established on the way of the buddha; it is the buddha that has the buddha nature; it is the guide; it is making use of an unobstructed style; it is the unobstructed wisdom. Hence, it can make use of cause and effect, and is free in merit and wisdom; it forms the cart that carries cause and effect. In life, it is unarrested by life; in death, it is unobstructed by death. In the five aggregates, like a gate opening, it is unobstructed by the five aggregates: it goes and stays freely, leaves and enters without difficulty. If it can be like this, it is not a matter of rank or stage, superiority or inferiority, even down to the body of an ant; if it is simply like this, everything is the pure and wondrous land, inconceivable.67

これすなはち百丈の道處なり。いはゆる五蘊は、いまの不壞身なり。いまの造次は、門開なり、不被五陰礙なり。生を使得するに生にとどめられず、死を使得するに死にさへられず。いたづらに生を愛することなかれ、みだりに死を恐怖することなかれ。すでに佛性の所在なり、動著し厭却するは外道なり。現前の衆縁と認ずるは、使得無礙風なり。これ最上乘なる是佛なり。この是佛の處在、すなはち淨妙國土なり。

     This is Baizhang’s statement. The “five aggregates” are this body that “won’t be destroyed”; this hurried act is “a gate opening,” is “unobstructed by the five aggregates.” In making use of life, it is not arrested by life; in making use of death, it is not obstructed by death. Do not futilely love life; do not irrationally fear death! Since they are the locus of the buddha nature, to be moved by them or to reject them is an alien path. To recognize the conditions right before one is “making use of the unobstructed style.” This is “this buddha” that is “the supreme vehicle.” The place of “this buddha” is “the pure and wondrous land.”68

* * * * *

黄檗在南泉茶堂内坐。南泉問黄檗、定慧等學、明見佛性、此理如何。黄檗曰、十二時中不依倚一物始得。南泉云、莫便是長老見處麼。黄檗曰、不敢。南泉云、[醤]漿水錢且致、草鞋錢教什麼人還。黄檗便休。

     Huangbo was sitting Nanquan’s tea hall. Nanquan asked Huangbo, “‘Studying meditation and wisdom equally, one clearly sees the buddha nature’ — what about this principle?”
     Huangbo said, “You only achieve it when you don’t rely on a single thing throughout the twelve times.”
     Nanquan said, “Isn’t this the elder’s viewpoint?”
     Huangbo said, “Not at all.”
     Nanquan said, “Leaving aside the money for the rice water, whom can I get to pay back the money for the straw sandals?”
     Huangbo desisted.69

いはゆる定慧等學の宗旨は、定學の慧學をさへざれば、等學するところに明見佛性のあるにはあらず、明見佛性のところに、定慧等學の學あるなり。此理如何と道取するなり。たとへば、明見佛性はたれが所作なるぞと道取せんもおなじかるべし。佛性等學、明見佛性、此理如何、と道取せんも道得なり。

     The essential point of “meditation and wisdom studied equally” is not that, since studying meditation does not interfere with studying wisdom, we “clearly see the buddha nature” where they are studied equally: it is that we have a study that is “meditation and wisdom studied equally” where we “clearly see the buddha nature.” He says, “what about this principle?” This is like saying, for example, “by whom is “clearly seeing the buddha nature” done? Another saying would also be, “when buddha and nature are studied equally, one clearly sees the buddha nature — what about this principle?”70

黄檗いはく、十二時中不依倚一物、といふ宗旨は、十二時中たとひ十二時中に處在せりとも、不依倚なり。不依倚一物、これ十二時中なるがゆゑに佛性明見なり。この十二時中、いづれの時節到來なりとかせん、いづれの國土なりとかせん。いまいふ十二時は、人間の十二時なるべきか、他那裏に十二時のあるか、白銀世界の十二時のしばらくきたれるか。たとひ此土なりとも、たとひ他界なりとも、不依倚なり。すでに十二時中なり、不依倚なるべし。

     Huangbo says, “you don’t rely on a single thing throughout the twelve times.” The essential point of this is that, although “throughout the twelve times” is located “thoughout the twelve times,” it is “not relying”: because “not relying on a single thing” is “throughout the twelve times,” the buddha nature is clearly seen. This “throughout the twelve times” — in which time does it arrive? In which land? This “twelve times” — is it the twelve times among humans? Are there twelve times over there? Have the twelve times of the silver world come to us for a while? Whether it is this land, whether it is other worlds, it is “not relying.” Since it is “throughout the twelve times,” it must be “not relying.”71

莫便是長老見處麼といふは、これを見處とはいふまじや、といふがごとし。長老見處麼と道取すとも、自己なるべしと回頭すべからず。自己に的當なりとも黄檗にあらず、黄檗かならずしも自己のみにあらず。長老見處は露回回なるがゆゑに。

     “Isn’t this the elder’s viewpoint?” is like saying, “Aren’t you saying this is your viewpoint?” Though he says, “is it the elder’s viewpoint?” he should not turn his head, thinking it must refer to himself. It may be accurate of himself, but it is not Huangbo, and Huangbo is not necessarily merely himself; for the “elder’s viewpoint” is “exposed everywhere.”72

黄檗いはく、不敢。この言は、宋土に、おのれにある能を問取せらるるには、能を能といはんとても、不敢といふなり。しかあれば、不敢の道は不敢にあらず。この道得はこの道取なること、はかるべきにあらず。長老見處たとひ長老なりとも、長老見處たとひ黄檗なりとも、道取するには不敢なるべし。一頭水牯牛出來道吽吽なるべし。かくのごとく道取するは道取なり。道取する宗旨、さらに又道取なる道取、こころみに道取してみるべし。

     Huangbo says, “Not at all.” Regarding this term: in the land of the Song, when asked about one’s own ability, even while saying an ability is one’s ability, one says, “not at all.” Therefore, saying “not at all” does not mean “not at all,” and we should not reckon that this saying is saying that. “The elder’s viewpoint” may be that of an elder, “the elder’s viewpoint” may be that of Huangbo; but in speaking of it, he should say, “not at all.” He should be a water buffalo coming up and saying, “moo, moo.” Saying it like this is saying it. The point of what he is saying, we should try to say by another saying that also says it.73

南泉いはく、漿水錢且致、草鞋錢教什麼人還。いはゆるは、こんづのあたひはしばらくおく、草鞋のあたひは、たれをしてかかへさしめん、となり。この道取の意旨、ひさしく生生をつくして參究すべし。漿水錢、いかなればかしばらく不管なる、留心勤學すべし。草鞋錢、なにとしてか管得する。行脚の年月にいくばくの草鞋をか踏破しきたれるとなり。いまいふべし、若不還錢、未著草鞋。またいふべし、兩三[革+兩]。この道得なるべし、この宗旨なるべし。

     Nanquan said, “Leaving aside the money for the rice water, whom can I get to pay back the money for the straw sandals?” What he is saying is, “Putting aside for the moment the cost of your rice water, who can I get to return the cost of your sandals.” The meaning of this saying, we should investigate for a long time, exhausting life after life. We should put our minds to and diligently study why he is not for the moment concerned about the “the money for the rice water,” and why he is concerned about “the money for the straw sandals.” [The question is,] how many straw sandals has he worn out in his years of pilgimage? He should say, “If I hadn’t returned the money, I wouldn’t have put on the straw sandals.” Or he should say, “Two or three pair.” This should be his saying; this should be his point.74

黄檗便休。これは休するなり。不肯せられて休し、不肯にて休するにあらず。本色衲子、しかあらず。しるべし、休裏有道は、笑裏有刀のごとくなり。これ佛性明見の粥足飯足なり。

     “Huangbo desisted.” This means he “desisted”: it does not mean that, not being affirmed, he desisted; or, not affirming, he desisted. A patch-robed one of true colors is not like that. We should realize that there is speech within desisting, like “the blade within the laugh.” This is “the gruel is enough, the rice is enough,” of the buddha nature clearly seen.75

この因縁を擧して、潙山、仰山にとふていはく、莫是黄檗搆得他南泉不得麼。仰山いはく、不然、須知黄檗有陥虎之機。潙山云、子見處、得恁麼長。

     Raising this episode, Guishan asked Yangshan, “Doesn’t this mean that Huangbo couldn’t catch that Nanquan?”
     Yangshan said, “Not so. You should realize that Huangbo has the ability to trap a tiger.
     Guishan said, “Your viewpoint is thus better.”76

大潙の道は、そのかみ黄檗は南泉を搆不得なりやといふ。仰山いはく、黄檗は陥虎の機あり。すでに陥虎することあらば、捋虎頭なるべし。陥虎捋虎異類中行。明見佛性也開一隻眼。佛性明見也失一隻眼。速道速道。佛性見處、得恁麼長なり。このゆゑに、半物全物これ不依倚なり。百千物、不依倚なり、百千時、不依倚なり。このゆゑにいはく、籮籠一枚、時中十二、依倚不依倚、如葛藤倚樹。天中及全天、後頭未有語なり。

     Dagui’s words say, “At that time, Huangbo could not catch Nanquan.” Guishan says, “Huangbo has the ability to trap a tiger.” If he has trapped the tiger, he should pet the tiger’s head.

Trapping a tiger and petting the tiger, he moves among other species.
Clearly seeing the buddha nature, he opens one eye;
The buddha nature clearly seeing, he loses one eye.
Speak! Speak!

     The buddha nature’s viewpoint is “thus better.” Therefore, a half thing or a whole thing is “not relying”; a hundred thousand things are “not relying”; a hundred thousand times are “not relying.” Therefore, we say,

A single snare, throughout the times twelve.
Relying and not relying, like climbing vines depend on the tree.
Throughout the heavens and the whole of heaven; afterwards, he had no words.77

* * * * *

趙州眞際大師に、ある僧とふ、狗子還有佛性也無。

A monk asked the Great Master Zhenji of Zhaozhou, “Does a dog have the buddha nature?”78

この問の意趣、あきらむべし。狗子とはいぬなり。かれに佛性あるべしと問取せず、なかるべしと問取するにあらず。これは、鐵漢また學道するかと問取するなり。あやまりて毒手にあふうらみふかしといへども、三十年よりこのかた、さらに半箇の聖人をみる風流なり。

     We should be clear about the meaning of this question. The term gouzi means “dog.” He is not asking whether it has the buddha nature; he is not asking whether it does not have the buddha nature: he is asking whether “the man of iron” also studies the way. Although he may regret having mistakenly encountered a “poison hand,” it is in the style of “seeing half a holy one after thirty years.”79

趙州いはく、無。この道をききて、習學すべき方路あり。佛性の自稱する無も恁麼道なるべし、狗子の自稱する無も恁麼道なるべし、傍觀者の喚作の無も恁麼道なるべし。その無、わづかに消石の日あるべし。

Zhaozhou said, “No.”

     There is a route we should study when we hear this said. The “no” that the buddha nature calls itself should be said like this; the “no” that the dog calls itself should be said like this; the “no” by which the onlooker calls it should be said like this. There will be a day when this “no” just melts the stone.80

僧いはく、一切衆生、皆有佛性、狗子爲甚麼無。

The monk said, “All living beings have the buddha nature. Why doesn’t the dog have it?”81

いはゆる宗旨は、一切衆生無ならば、佛性も無なるべし、狗子も無なるべしといふ、その宗旨作麼生となり。狗子佛性、なにとして無をまつことあらん。

     The point of what he says is that, if “all living beings” are “no,” “the buddha nature” must also be “no,” “the dog” must also be “no” — what about this point? Why should the buddha nature of the dog depend on “no”?82

趙州いはく、爲他有業識在。この道旨は、爲他有は業識なり、業識有、爲他有なりとも、狗子無、佛性無なり。業識いまだ狗子を會せず、狗子いかでか佛性にあはん。たとひ雙放雙収すとも、なほこれ業識の始終なり。

Zhaozhou said, “Because it has karmic consciousness.”

     The meaning of these words is that, while “because it has” is “karmic consciousness,” and “having karmic consciousness” is “because it has,” they are the “no” of the dog, the “no” of the buddha nature. Karmic consciousness does not understand the dog; so how could the dog meet the buddha nature? Whether we disperse the pair or collect the pair, it is still karmic consciousness from beginning to end.83

趙州有僧問、狗子還有佛性也無。

A monk asked Zhaozhou, “Does the dog have the buddha nature?”84

この問取は、この僧、搆得趙州の道理なるべし。しかあれば、佛性の道取問取は、佛祖の家常茶飯なり。

     The reason for this question must be for this monk to catch Zhaozhou. Thus, talking about and asking about the buddha nature is the “everyday tea and rice” of the buddhas and ancestors.85

趙州いはく、有。この有の様子は、教家の論師等の有にあらず、有部の論有にあらざるなり。すすみて佛有を學すべし。佛有は趙州有なり、趙州有は狗子有なり、狗子有は佛性有なり。

Zhaozhou said, “Yes.”

     The form of this “yes” is not the “being” of the treatise masters of the teaching houses, not the “being” discussed by the Existence school. We should go on to study the being of the buddha. The being of the buddha is the being of Zhaozhou; the being of Zhaozhou is the being of the dog; the being of the dog is the being of the buddha nature.86

僧いはく、既有、爲甚麼却撞入這皮袋。

The monk said, “Since it already has it, why does it still force entry into this bag of skin?”87

この僧の道得は、今有なるか、古有なるか、既有なるかと問取するに、既有は諸有に相似せりといふとも、既有は孤明なり。既有は撞入すべきか、撞入すべからざるか。撞入這皮袋の行履、いたづらに蹉過の功夫あらず。

     In this monk’s saying, in asking whether it is present being, past being, or “already being,” though we may say “already being” resembles the various [other types of] being, “already being” shines alone. Should “already being” “force entry” or should it not “force entry”? There is no concerted effort that idly overlooks the conduct of “forcing entry into this bag of skin.”

趙州いはく、爲他知而故犯。

Zhaozhou said, “Because it knowingly commits an intentional crime.”

この語は、世俗の言語として、ひさしく途中に流布せりといへども、いまは趙州の道得なり。いふところは、しりてことさらをかす、となり。この道得は、疑著せざらん、すくなかるべし。いま一字の入、あきらめがたしといへども、入之一字も不用得なり。いはんや欲識庵中不死人、豈離只今這皮袋なり。不死人はたとひ阿誰なりとも、いづれのときか皮袋に莫離なる。故犯はかならずしも入皮袋にあらず、撞入這皮袋かならずしも知而故犯にあらず。知而のゆゑに故犯あるべきなり。しるべし、この故犯すなはち脱體の行履を覆藏せるならん。これ撞入と説著するなり。脱體の行履、その正當覆藏のとき、自己にも覆藏し、他人にも覆藏す。しかもかくのごとくなりといへども、いまだのがれずといふことなかれ、驢前馬後漢。いはんや、雲居高祖いはく、たとひ佛法邊事を學得する、はやくこれ錯用心了也。

     These words may have long circulated in the world as a secular expression, but here they are Zhaozhou’s saying. What they say is that, knowing, it intentionally transgessed. Not a few must have had doubts about this saying. The term “entry” here may be difficult to clarify, but “the word ‘enter’ is not necessary.” Still more, “if you wish to know the undying person in the hermitage, how could you leave this present bag of skin?” Whoever the “undying person” is, when would it leave the bag of skin?89

     “Committing an intentional crime” is not necessarily “entering the bag of skin; “forcing entry into this bag of skin” is not necessarily “knowingly committing an intentional crime”: because it is “knowingly,” there must be “the commission of an intentional crime.” We should realize that this “commission of an intentional crime” may have covered and concealed the conduct of the body cast off. This is spoken of as “forcing entry.” The conduct of the body cast off, at the very time it is covered and concealed, is covered and concealed in the self and covered and concealed in others. Nevertheless, though this may be the case, do not say it has not escaped — “the guy ahead of the ass and behind the horse.” Moreover, as the Eminent Ancestor Yunju says, “Studying the marginal matters of the buddha dharma, you’ve already misused your mind.”90

* * * * *

長沙景岑和尚の會に、竺尚書とふ、蚯蚓斬爲兩段、兩頭倶動。未審、佛性在阿那箇頭。師云、莫妄想。書云、争奈動何。師云、只是風火未散。

     In the community of the Reverend Changsha Jingcen, the Minister Zhu asked, “When you cut a worm in two pieces, both of them move. I don’t understand, in which one is the buddha nature?”
     The master said, “Don’t have deluded ideas.”
     The minister said, “What do you make of their moving?”
     The master said, “It’s just that the wind and fire haven’t dispersed.”91

{76}

いま尚書いはくの蚯蚓斬爲兩段は、未斬時は一段なりと決定するか。佛祖の家常に不恁麼なり。蚯蚓もとより一段にあらず、蚯蚓きれて兩段にあらず。一兩の道取、まさに功夫參學すべし。兩頭倶動といふ兩頭は、未斬よりさきを一頭とせるか、佛向上を一頭とせるか。兩頭の語、たとひ尚書の會不會にかかはるべからず、語話をすつることなかれ。きれたる兩段は一頭にして、さらに一頭のあるか。その動といふに倶動といふ、定動智抜ともに動なるべきなり。

     The minister says here “cut a worm in two pieces”: is he certain that, before one cuts it, it is one piece? In the everyday life of the buddhas and ancestors, this is not so: from the beginning, the worm is not one piece, nor is it two pieces when one cuts it. We should make concerted effort and study the word “one piece.” In saying “both of them move,” by “both,” does he mean there is one before we cut it? Does he mean that there is one “beyond the buddha”? Whether or not the minister understands or does not understand the words “both of them,” we should not discard his words. Is it that, while the two cut parts are one, there is a further one? In speaking of the movement, he says “both move”: “concentration moves them and wisdom uproots them” are both this “movement.”92

未審、佛性在阿那箇頭。この道得は審細にすべし。 佛性斬爲兩段、未審蚯蚓在阿那箇頭といふべし。兩頭倶動、佛性在阿那箇頭といふは、倶動ならば、佛性の所在に不堪なりといふか。倶動なれば、動はともに動ずといふとも、佛性の所在は、そのなかにいづれなるべきぞといふか。

     “I don’t understand, in which one is the buddha nature?” This saying, we should examine in detail. He should say, “When the buddha nature is cut in two pieces, I don’t understand, in which one is the worm?”93 “Both of them move; in which one is the buddha nature?” Is he saying that, if both of them move, they are unfit as the location of the buddha nature? Or is he saying that, although, since both move, the movement moves in both, in which [movement] is the location of the buddha nature?

師いはく、莫妄想、この宗旨は、作麼生なるべきぞ。妄想することなかれ、といふなり。しかあれば、兩頭倶動するに妄想なし、妄想にあらずといふか、ただ佛性は妄想なしといふか。佛性の論におよばず、兩頭の論におよばず、ただ妄想なしと道取するか、とも參究すべし。

     “The master said, ‘Don’t have deluded ideas.’” What should we make of his point here? He says, “Do not have deluded ideas.” So, is he saying that, “when both of them move,” they have no deluded ideas? Or saying that they are not deluded ideas? Or saying just that the buddha nature has no deluded ideas? Or, without discussing the buddha nature or discussing “both,” is he just saying that there are no deluded ideas. We should study all these.

動ずるはいかがせん、といふは、動ずればさらに佛性一枚をかさぬべしと道取するか、動ずれば佛性にあらざらんと道看するか。

     “What do you make of their moving?” Is this saying that, since they are moving, we should add another layer of buddha nature on top of them? Is it trying to say that, since they are moving, they are not the buddha nature?94

風火未散といふは、佛性を出現せしむるなるべし。佛性なりとやせん、風火なりとやせん。佛性と風火と、倶出すといふべからず、一出一不出といふべからず、風火すなはち佛性といふべからず。ゆゑに長沙は、蚯蚓有佛性、といはず、蚯蚓無佛性、といはず、ただ、莫妄想、と道取す、風火未散、と道取す。佛性の活計は、長沙の道を卜度すべし。風火未散、といふ言語、しづかに功夫すべし。未散、といふは、いかなる道理かある。風火のあつまれりけるが、散ずべき期いまだしきと道取するに、未散といふか、しかあるべからざるなり。風火未散は、ほとけ、法をとく。未散風火は、法、ほとけをとく。たとへば、一音の法をとく時節到來なり。説法の一音なる、到來の時節なり。法は一音なり、一音の法なるゆゑに。

     To say “the wind and fire haven’t dispersed” is to make the buddha nature appear. Should we take it as the buddha nature? Should we take it as the wind and fire? We should not say that the buddha nature and the wind and fire both emerge; we should not say that one emerges and one does not emerge; we should not say that the wind and fire are themselves the buddha nature. Therefore, Changsha does not say that the worm has the buddha nature; he does not say that the worm has no buddha nature. He simply says, “Don’t have deluded ideas”; he says, “the wind and fire haven’t dispersed.” We should calculate the way of life of the buddha nature by the saying of Changsha; we should quietly make concerted efforts on the words “the wind and fire haven’t dispersed.” What is the reasoning behind his saying “undispersed”? Does “undispersed” mean he is saying that the wind and fire have been collected and have not yet reached the point when they will be dispersed? This cannot be the case. “The wind and fire haven’t dispersed” is the buddha preaching the dharma; “the wind and fire haven’t dispersed” is the dharma preaching the buddha. It is like the arrival of the time when a single sound preaches the dharma; it is the time of the arrival of the single sound that is the preaching of the dharma. The dharma is a single sound; for it is the dharma of a single sound.95

又、佛性は生のときのみにありて、死のときはなかるべしとおもふ、もとも少聞薄解なり。生のときも有佛性なり、無佛性なり。死のときも有佛性なり、無佛性なり。風火の散未散を論することあらば、佛性の散不散なるべし。たとひ散のときも佛性有なるべし、佛性無なるべし。たとひ未散のときも有佛性なるべし、無佛性なるべし。しかあるを、佛性は動不動によりて在不在し、識不識によりて神不神なり、知不知に性不性なるべき、と邪執せるは、外道なり。無始劫來は、癡人おほく識神を認じて、佛性とせり、本來人とせる、笑殺人なり。さらに佛性を道取するに、拕泥滞水なるべきにあらざれども、牆壁瓦礫なり。向上に道取するとき、作麼生ならんかこれ佛性。還委悉麼。三頭八臂。

     Again, to think that the buddha nature exists only at the time of birth and not at the time of death is [a case of] little learning and slight understanding. The time of birth “has the buddha nature” and “has no buddha nature”; the time of death “has the buddha nature” and “has no buddha nature.” If we discuss the dispersal and non-dispersal of the wind and fire, it would be the dispersal and non-dispersal of the buddha nature. The time that it disperses must be the buddha nature existing, must be the buddha nature not existing; the time that it has not dispersed must be having the buddha nature, must be having no buddha nature. Despite this, to cling falsely to [the views that] the buddha nature exists or does not exist depending on whether it is moving on not moving, or it is spirit or is not spirit depending on whether it is conscious or not conscious, or it is the nature or is not the nature depending on its knowing or not knowing — this is an alien path. “From beginningless kalpas,” “the deluded,” “acknowledging the knowing spirit,” have taken it as the buddha nature, have taken it as “the original person” — what a laugh! To say something further about the buddha nature, although we need not be “covered with mud and soaked with water,” it is “fences, walls, tiles, and pebbles.” When we say something beyond this, what is the buddha nature? Is everything clear? “Three heads and eight arms.”96

正法眼藏佛性第三

Treasury of the Eye of the True Dharma
Buddha Nature
Number 3

爾時仁治二年辛丑十月十四日、在雍州觀音導利興聖寶林寺示衆

Presented to the assembly on the fourteenth day, tenth month, second year of Ninji (eighth stem, second branch)
at Kannon Dōri Kōshō Hōrinji, Yōshū97